High Level Political Forum for Sustainable Development


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TOPIC: Post 2015 Agenda - Food Security Food security is only achieved when all the individuals have easy access to nutritional food in order to meet their dietary requirements, However, due to various risk factors such as poor transport infrastructure, land degradation, Climate change, population growth can eventually lead to food insecurity. According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), food insecurity is a situation "limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods or limited or uncertain ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways”. Rwanda is a low-income, food deficit and least developed country and ranks 151 out of 187. These rural farmers are involved in the production of commercial crops, Tea, and Coffee. The Rwandan Genocide of 1940 had taken place due to the ongoing conflict between the Hutu-led government and the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) and resulted in the deaths of 500,000–1,000,000 Rwandans. It had an extreme impact on the economy of Rwanda as it caused a spike in HIV-infection, destruction of infrastructure, Sever depopulation and also led to the reintegration of two-million refugees. This poor state of infrastructure and also the lack of Health services makes the country vulnerable to infectious diseases, thus increasing the mortality rate, and also reduces the quality and standard of living and agricultural production.
Food insecurity is predominantly a problem for the people living in the rural villages as they are the most vulnerable. As one of the major causes of food insecurity is shortages and distribution of food have an inadvertent effect on the people living under poverty as it directly leads to chronic hunger and starvation. In order to eliminate the problem of food insecurity the three pillars of food security; Food availability, food accessibility and also Food utilization, need to be taken into consideration. These three pillars are crucial to solving food insecurity as it involves providing the right amount of food to an individual, according to this individual's dietary requirements, and making sure that it is adequately digested by the individuals body.
Food Availability involves the supply of food through production, distribution, and exchange. Production involves the use of land for agriculture. With the increase in population, Majority of the poor people is concentrated in the high-rainfall areas (Rwanda average rainfall is 800mm). Hence, this will eventually result in the people being forced to cultivate more marginal land and this continuous use of land will lead to land degradation, desertification, and soil erosion. Even though climatic factors do have a significant part inland desertification, it is because of the high poverty Therefore, it suffices to say that environmental degradation is directly caused by the increase in poverty. Food distribution ...

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